風景速寫(116)-SB18:34

Landscape Sketch (116)-SB18: 34

1934

紙本鋼筆Pen on paper

12.5×18.5cm

私人收藏Private collection

作品相關資料

英文版  譯者:杜德倫、許邏灣
西文版  譯者:孔方明
法文版  譯者:徐鵬飛 
德文版  譯者:孫敏學
日文版  譯者:富田哲
俄文版  譯者:律可娃柳博芙、劉皇杏
校譯:許邏灣、柯大衛、孔方明、孫敏學、曾秋桂

歷史不只保存在文獻與古蹟當中,有時也在畫家的素描簿裡留下雪泥鴻爪,這幀景物速寫就是一例。比對老照片,圖中所描繪的建築物,應是二戰期間消失的淡水「黑樓」,以及現存的淡水街長多田榮吉故居。
Not only is history preserved in documents and heritage sites, but vestiges of history also remain in a painter’s sketchbooks. This landscape sketch is a good example. Compared with the old photographs of Tamsui, the two structures depicted in the sketch must be the “Black House,” which had disappeared during World War II, and the existing residence previously owned by Tada Eikichi, the Head of Tamsui Street.


遠景的洋樓,外觀有成排醒目的拱圈,乍看與淡水的知名歷史建築「小白宮」頗為近似。不過,若比對日本時代的老照片,畫中建物的特徵,應與1940年代以前存在於小白宮南側、老淡水人稱作「黑樓」的洋房較為相符。
In the background, the Western-style house with striking rows of arches on the exterior looks, at first glance, exactly like the Little White House, a famous historic building at Tamsui. However, compared with the old photographs from the Japanese colonial period, the characteristics of the pictorial building correspond more closely to those of the so-called “Black House,” a Western-style house known to the old locals at Tamsui. The Black House had existed to the south of the Little White House till 1940.

黑樓的故事與小白宮相仿,兩幢建物皆由清末淡水的稅務司所興建,日本時代亦同屬淡水稅關所有。1930年代末,這兩棟洋房都淪落為破敗的空屋,而在二戰末期美軍的淡水空照圖裡,黑樓已然消失於地表。有關黑樓的史料十分罕見,這幅畫記錄了它在1934年的樣貌,為歷史留下珍貴的側寫。
The Black House and the Little White House have a similar story: both buildings were constructed by the Tamsui Tax Department at the end of the Qing Dynasty, and both belonged to the Tamsui Customs Office during the Japanese rule period. In the late 1930s, both Western-style houses were deserted and run-down. Near the end of World War II, the Black House had disappeared from the earth in an aerial photograph taken by the American army. Rarely can we find any historical data about the Black House; notwithstanding, this drawing records its appearance in 1934 and thus leaves a valuable profile of the Black House in history.

近景的日式建築有兩條小徑環繞,考慮其外觀與相對位置,應是日人多田榮吉的住宅。陳澄波作成這幅速寫的年代,這棟房子剛剛完工[1],多田先生也從淡水街長(亦即當時淡水地區的行政首長)一職卸任不久。他與家人長居於此處,直到二戰結束返日為止。

In the foreground, the Japanese-style structure is circled by two paths. In view of its exterior and the relative position, it must be the former residence of Tada Eikichi. Chen Cheng-po made this sketch in the year when the construction work of the house was newly completed, and shortly before Mr. Tada was relieved of his office as the Head of Tamsui Street (i.e. the administrative chief of Tamsui Township at that time).1 Mr. Tada and his family had lived in this residence until they returned to Japan at the end of World War II.

往昔歷史的片片段段,總在不經意處遺留線索。每當陳澄波打開素描本子,時光便藉著他的筆墨,流轉於紙頁上。不只構築了一幅畫,也寫下了故事。

Bits of the past history have left their traces unexpectedly. Whenever Chen Cheng-po opened a sketchbook, landscapes of the time would be transmitted onto the paper via his pen and ink. He not only constructed a painting but also wrote down a story.


[1] 李乾朗主持,《臺北縣縣定古蹟淡水街長多田榮吉故居修復或再利用計畫》(臺北縣:文化局,2010),頁58-59。

 

樣式奇特的屋宇座落於遠方,煙囪、拱圈、屋頂與後方毗連的建築,每個細節都是線索,領著我們在舊照片裡尋見它的蹤跡。夾處於兩條小徑之間的木頭房子,則是另一地方聞人的住所,他也是陳澄波在淡水的朋友之一嗎?

造型殊異的兩幢建物,分別說了兩種脈絡迥異的故事。在鋼筆墨線的流轉之間,你或許也會看見淡水歷史的複雜層次。

 

1. 「黑樓」

老淡水人的記憶有所謂「埔頂三塊厝」,亦即日本時代隸屬淡水稅關的三幢建物。隨著淡水的港口機能沒落,這三棟造型相仿的建築也漸趨荒廢,今日只餘小白宮。畫中的房子應是「三塊厝」裡的「黑樓」,其舊址在小白宮東側。

1935年出版的一本書裡,我們可以尋獲一幀「黑樓」的老照片,種種細節,皆與陳澄波的描繪高度吻合。井出季和太編,《興味の臺灣史話》,1935,頁130後夾頁2。台大舊照片資料庫。

 

2. 拱圈

早期淡水的許多房子,經常採用所謂「殖民地式建築」樣式,在建物外圍設置有拱圈的涼臺。這一構造除了有助室內採光與通風,同時也為建築外觀塑造了鮮明特色。這類有拱圈的洋樓,亦是畫家們在淡水時常描繪的特色景物。

 

3. 多田榮吉故居

以「黑樓」的相對位置比對二戰時候的美軍空照圖,前景的房子應是「多田榮吉故居」。這棟原始結構保存仍相當完整的日式建築,被國民政府接收後成為公家配給的宿舍,直至2005年才被公告為市定古蹟,並於2016年完成修復。

臺灣百年歷史地圖網站。

 

4. 多田榮吉

多田榮吉是日本領臺之初即從內地渡海來臺尋求發展機會的商人,他在1905年遷居淡水之後逐漸發跡,並且在1930年代初期被任命為淡水街長。1934年畫中的這棟房子落成之後,多田便在此處長居,直至戰後引揚才返回神戶的出身地。

 

5. 「入母屋造」

陳澄波的這件速寫,與多田榮吉故居正面的屋頂樣式完全吻合。「入母屋造」指的是屋頂正脊的兩端與屋簷之間(所謂「垂脊」)並不以一條直線相連,而是有所轉折。在傳統中國建築當中,同樣的屋頂樣式則稱作「歇山頂」。

 

6. 1934年,陳澄波在淡水的風景速寫

這件速寫,原先收藏在陳澄波遺留的一本素描簿裡。而在它的前、後數頁,都能找到有關淡水風景的描繪。顯然,陳澄波是帶著這本簿子在小鎮四處穿梭,取景寫生。線條凌亂的速寫雖然常被忽略,卻同樣擁有仔細鑑賞的價值。